• May 12th 2023

AISI 1060 carbon steel is a high-carbon steel containing approximately 0.60% carbon, which gives it a unique combination of properties such as strength, hardness, and wear resistance. In this essay, we will explore the equivalent material options for AISI 1060 steel and their properties. The essay will be structured as follows: first, we will briefly introduce AISI 1060 steel and its applications, followed by an overview of the equivalent materials, a comparison of their properties, and finally, a summary.

Introduction to AISI 1060 Steel

AISI 1060 steel is a high-carbon steel that belongs to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification system. The AISI system categorizes steels based on their chemical compositions, and the last two digits in the classification indicate the approximate carbon content in hundredths of a percent. Therefore, AISI 1060 steel contains approximately 0.60% carbon. The high carbon content results in a material with excellent strength, hardness, and wear resistance, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

Applications of AISI 1060 Steel

Some common applications of AISI 1060 steel include:

  • Springs and high-strength wires: Due to its high strength and fatigue resistance, AISI 1060 steel is often used in the manufacturing of springs and high-strength wires for various industries such as automotive, aerospace, and agricultural machinery.
  • Cutting tools: The hardness and wear resistance of AISI 1060 steel make it an ideal choice for producing cutting tools such as knives, blades, and punches.
  • Gears and shafts: AISI 1060 steel's strength and toughness make it suitable for manufacturing gears and shafts that require high load-bearing capacities.

Equivalent Materials

There are several equivalent materials to AISI 1060 steel, which can be used as alternatives depending on availability, cost, or specific application requirements. Some of the most common equivalent materials include:

  • SAE J403 Grade 1060: This is a standard issued by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and is considered a direct equivalent to AISI 1060 steel, with nearly identical chemical composition and properties.
  • EN 1.1221 (C60E): A European standard (EN) steel grade that is similar to AISI 1060 steel in terms of its chemical composition and properties. The main difference is that EN 1.1221 has slightly lower carbon content than AISI 1060.
  • JIS S60C: A Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) steel grade that is equivalent to AISI 1060 steel, with similar chemical composition and properties.
  • GB 60#: A Chinese steel grade that is considered equivalent to AISI 1060 steel, with comparable chemical composition and properties.

Comparison of Equivalent Materials

The following comparison highlights the key properties of the equivalent materials mentioned above:

Chemical Composition

AISI 1060, SAE J403 Grade 1060, and JIS S60C have very similar chemical compositions, with the primary difference being the manganese content. EN 1.1221 (C60E) and GB 60# have slightly lower carbon content compared to AISI 1060, but they still exhibit similar properties.

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of these equivalent materials are very similar, with small variations in tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness. These variations are due to differences in the manufacturing process and heat treatment procedures.


AISI 1060 and its equivalent materials have limited weldability due to their high carbon content. Welding can cause the formation of brittle structures in the heat-affected zone, leading to reduced strength and possible failure of the welded joint. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are often required to mitigate these issues.


The machinability of AISI 1060 steel and its equivalent materials is relatively poor compared to low-carbon steels, primarily due to their high carbon content. However, it is still possible to machine these materials using the appropriate cutting tools and machining conditions.

Cost and Availability

The cost and availability of AISI 1060 steel and its equivalent materials may vary depending on the region and the specific requirements of the application. In some cases, using an equivalent material may result in cost savings or shorter lead times.


AISI 1060 steel is a high-carbon steel with excellent strength, hardness, and wear resistance, making it suitable for a wide range of applications such as springs, cutting tools, gears, and shafts. There are several equivalent materials to AISI 1060 steel, including SAE J403 Grade 1060, EN 1.1221 (C60E), JIS S60C, and GB 60#. These materials exhibit similar chemical compositions and properties, making them suitable alternatives depending on factors such as availability, cost, and specific application requirements.

When comparing the equivalent materials, it is important to consider their chemical composition, mechanical properties, weldability, machinability, cost, and availability. Although there are small variations in tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness among the equivalent materials, these differences are generally negligible for most applications. Weldability and machinability are limited due to the high carbon content, but these challenges can be addressed with appropriate techniques, such as preheating and post-weld heat treatment or using specialized cutting tools.

In conclusion, AISI 1060 steel and its equivalent materials offer a versatile range of options for engineers and designers in various industries. Choosing the most suitable material depends on factors such as availability, cost, and specific application requirements, but these materials generally provide a solid foundation for the development of high-strength, wear-resistant components.

Always consult with us to ensure the chosen material is suitable for your specific application.